Exploring the design and implementation of reliable, scalable, massively-concurrent computer systems
John Shutt has reformulated the foundations of LISP/Scheme . Observing that Lambda is a primitive applicative constructor, he proposes Vau as a primitve operative constructor instead. This changes our focus from implicit evaluation to explicit evaluation. Applicatives evaluate their operands before evaluating the combination. Operatives act directly on their (unevaluated) operands, possibly evaluating them selectively.